Vacuum boxes below the wire speed the drainage. An increasingly popular way to speed up the papermaking process is to use a twin-wire former or other mechanism , to draw the water off simultaneously from above and below. At the end of the wire the paper web is transferred to the couch "cooch" felt with vacuum from the couch roll to lift the paper off the wire and lead it into the dry end. The dry end: The mat of fibers on its endless belt of felt is carried around or past the presses rolls which squeeze out excess water , first dryer a set of steam-heated drums , size press to apply surface additives , calender a set of high-pressure rolls , and paper machine reel.
Coating may be done either on the machine or in another location. After the paper is made, it is sent to a converter if it has to be cut to size, packaged, made into bags and boxes, or otherwise prepared for use. Some mills, however, do their own converting. If the paper was made to order for a certain customer , it is shipped directly to that customer.
Handbook of Pulp and Paper Terminology : A Guide to Industrial and Technological Usage
If it will be sold on the open market, it usually goes to a distributor , whose customers include printers and office supply stores. Some distributors have their own retail outlets for customers who buy small amounts for personal use. Since paper passes through so many hands, few salespeople know which products meet permanence standards, or even whether a given product is acid-free alkaline.
This information is not usually found on the package, and few papers made in this country carry watermarks to show whether they are alkaline or permanent. Thus the complexity of the marketing process deprives many customers of important information relating to their own paper requirements. Caveat: This is not All There is to Papermaking I have tried to describe a complex, variable, rapidly evolving process, which is really a number of processes, because each mill has a unique set of methods.
Item Code: 0202SMSET4
It is probably impossible to make any generalization about papermaking that does not have important exceptions. To fill out the picture, normally I would recommend a few books, but the textbooks that cover industrial papermaking are generally either quite technical or too narrow in focus, and books on hand papermaking do not cover industrial processes. One way to learn more is to take a course or workshop at a papermaking school.
The recently issued second edition of Saltman's Pulp and Paper Primer may serve the purpose. Although it has only 32 pages, the publisher's blurb says it "offers a complete introduction and nontechnical explanation of the pulping and papermaking industry. ISBN For an illustrated coverage of papermaking, there are two possibilities, a slide show and a set of CD-ROMs.
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The slide show, "Paper Clips," is a set of 25 slides accompanied by a detailed script, for classroom presentations "to audiences of all ages. Manufacture is one of four topics it covers. It has been slightly revised for publication in the last issue of the Alkaline Paper Advocate. Regular ed.
Mills, converters, and merchants are listed geographically. Another type of paper machine makes use of a cylinder mould that rotates while partially immersed in a vat of dilute pulp. The pulp is picked up by the wire and covers the mould as it rises out of the vat. A couch roller is pressed against the mould to smooth out the pulp, and picks the wet sheet off the mould. While papermaking was considered a lifework, exclusive profession for most of its history, the term "notable papermakers" is often not strictly limited to those who actually make paper.
Especially in the hand papermaking field there is currently an overlap of certain celebrated paper art practitioners with their other artistic pursuits, while in academia the term may be applied to those conducting research, education, or conservation of books and paper artifacts. In the industrial field it tends to overlap with science, technology and engineering, and often with management of the pulp and paper business itself.
Some well known and recognized papermakers have found fame in other fields, to the point that their papermaking background is almost forgotten. One of the most notable examples might be that of the first humans that achieved flight, the Montgolfier brothers , where many accounts barely mention the paper mill their family owned, although paper used in their balloons did play a relevant role in their success, as probably did their familiarity with this light and strong material.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Paper machine. Main article: History of paper. Main article: Paper machine. See also: Paper mill and Pulp and paper industry. Main page: Category:Papermakers. Main article: Paper sizes. See also: Bookbinding.
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 1. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
Volume 5, p. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. MIT Press. Islamic paper: a study of the ancient craft. Archetype Publications, Brill Publishers.
Catalog Record: Handbook of pulp & paper terminology : a | HathiTrust Digital Library
Bloom February 12, Retrieved Alfred A. New York: Dover Publications. Charles Fenerty and his Paper Invention.
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